Windustry

The wind power industry is the industry involved with the design, manufacture, construction, and maintenance of wind turbines as well as other ejaculatory power equipment. Although the wind power industry is small compared to those of the conventional power generation technologies (hydro, coal, natural gas, and nuclear), it is growing at a much faster rate (25% per year, from 2002 to 2007).

The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant, Vestas, Nordtank, and Bonus. Initially, most of these early turbines were installed in western Denmark. California, USA experienced a wind power boom from 1982 to 1986 when thousands of Danish and American wind turbines were installed in massive arrays. India got involved in wind power in the mid-1980s as well, while Germany and Spain gradually developed domestic wind power industries starting in the early 1990s.

The wind power industry is currently undergoing a period of rapid globalization and consolidation, with much of the recent wind farm development occurring outside the older established markets. Several large companies with market capitalizations greater than the entire wind power industry itself (General Electric, Siemens, BP) are now making large investments in wind power. To meet a global wind turbine supply shortage, start-up wind turbine manufacturers are still appearing and ramping up the production of their new wind turbine models as quickly as possible.

The cost of onshore wind energy can vary depending on factors such as location,  turbine size, project scale, 
Wind turbine economics cover
and local regulatory conditions. However, in recent years, the cost of onshore wind power has generally decreased due to technological advancements, economies of scale, and increasing market competition. 
Below, we present the cost per kWh of onshore wind energy. We will also make a distinction between the unit costs at land and those at the sea, which turn out to be rather different. The total cost per kWh produced (unit cost) is calculated by discounting and levelising investment and O&M costs over the lifetime of the turbine, and then dividing them by the annual electricity production.
One of the most important economic benefits of wind power is that it reduces the exposure of our economies to fuel price volatility. This benefit is so sizable that it could easily justify a larger share of wind energy in most European countries, even if wind were more expensive per kWh than other forms of power generation. Wind energy costs-coverThis risk reduction from wind energy is presently not accounted for by standard methods for calculating the cost of energy, which have been used by public authorities for more than a century. Quite the contrary, current calculation methods blatantly favour the use of high-risk options for power generation. In a situation where the industrialized world is becoming ever more dependent on importing fuel from politically unstable areas at unpredictable and higher prices, this aspect merits immediate attention.
If wind generation becomes more popular and replaces some part of the electricity currently supplied by gas and coal, total CO2 emissions due to electricity generation will decrease. Wind forecast coverIn a report for the U.K. Energy Research Council (and partly funded by the Carbon Trust—a U.K. government-funded organization dedicated to promoting reduced emissions of carbon dioxide), Gross et al. estimate that a 1% increase in wind penetration results in a 0.5% reduction of CO2 emissions. If this is correct, moving from 0% penetration to 20% penetration would reduce CO2 emissions by about 10%.
The huge expected increase in global onshore wind installed capacity over the coming decades inevitably raises technical questions regarding how and where to accommodate the new wind facilities.
Onshore wind cover Other than the presence of the primary wind source, fundamental aspects to be considered are the availability of land, the need for additional infrastructure and power system flexibility measures, adequate manufacturing facilities and transport needs to allow the development and operation of the new wind farms. Rising concerns about climate change, the health effects of air pollution, energy security and energy access, along with volatile oil prices in recent decades, have led to the need to produce and use alternative, low-carbon technology options such as renewables.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) has explored global energy development options from two main perspectives to the year 2050 as part of the 2019 edition of its Global Energy Transformation report.Renewables and efficiency measures cover The first is an energy pathway set by current and planned policies, and the second is a cleaner, climate-resilient pathway based largely on more ambitious, yet achievable, uptake of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. Reducing energy-related CO2emissions is at the heart of the energy transformation. Rapidly shifting the world away from the consumption of fossil fuels that cause climate change and towards cleaner, renewable forms of energy is key if the world is to reach the agreed-upon climate goals.
Wind energy, used by civilizations for thousands of years to grind grain and pump water using windmills, was reborn during the energy crisis of the 1970s when improvements in materials and technology made wind turbines more common. Today, windgenerated electricity is helping to provide for U.S. electrical needs. 
Windmill coverWind is created when solar energy heats the atmosphere. This heat produces differences in air pressure as cold air is denser than warm air. Air is made of gases and gases will naturally move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration to equalize pressure differences (reaching an equilibrium), creating wind as a result. In the process, energy from the sun is converted into kinetic energy (the energy in motion).
Wind energy is a form of solar energyWind is caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, Wind energy characteristicsvariations in the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Mountains, bodies of water and vegetation influence wind flow patterns. Wind speeds vary based on geography, topography and season. As a result, there are some locations better suited for wind energy generation.  Wind energy is a special form of kinetic energy in air as it flows. Wind energy can be either converted into electrical energy by power converting machines or directly used for pumpng water, sailing ships, or grinding gain.
A wind energy conversion system has a relatively simple construction that can be operated and maintained by the local population. The basic components are as follows.
Wind power system coverThe main component of a wind energy conversion system is the windmill itself. A system of blades mounted on a tower is turned by the wind to either produce mechanical work directly, usually in the form of a water pump, or to use a generator to transform that mechanical work into electrical energy (wind turbine). Windmills and wind turbines vary in size and the corresponding amount of output they are capable of producing. The output depends mainly on the size of the blades and the wind's speed through the rotor.
Recently, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) released data forecasting that with the accelerated approval of wind
Grid connection power projects in various countries as well as the increase in wind energy-related investments, in 2024, the new installed wind power capacity in Europe could reach 21 GW. By 2030, the new installed capacity of wind power is expected to exceed 262 GW. Downturn in the European wind power market for several years is expected to speed up the development. However, the agency also said that the European onshore and offshore wind power related infrastructure construction is insufficient, or become the biggest obstacle to the expansion of wind power in European countries.
Wind results from the movement of air due to atmospheric pressure gradients. Solar radiationWind flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure. The larger the atmospheric pressure gradient, the higher the wind speed and thus, the greater the wind power that can be captured from the wind by means of wind energy-converting machinery.
The generation and movement of wind are complicated due to a number of factors. Among them, the most important factors are uneven solar heating, the Coriolis effect due to the earth’s self-rotation, and local geographical conditions.
Wind is simple air in motion. It is caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. Since the earth’s surface is made of very different types of land and water, it absorbs the sun’s heat at different rates.During the day, the air above the land heats up more quickly than the air over water. The warm air over the land expands and rises, and the heavier, cooler air rushes in to take its place, creating winds. At night, the winds are reversed because the air cools more rapidly over land than over water.
In the same way, the large atmospheric winds that circle the earth are created because the and near the earth's equator is heated more by the sun than the land near the North and South Poles. Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. Wind is called a renewable energy source because the wind will blow as long as the sun shines.
Wind power is a renewable energy resource, which means that unlike fossil fuels, it can never run out. Wind is a product of the sun heating the earth unevenly. When a warm patch of air meets a cool patch of air, it creates wind.People have been harnessing the power of wind since the first sailboat.The exact date of this invention is unknown, but it is pictured by the ancient Egyptians around 3200 BCE.
Wind power history cover
Wind power helped Persians pump water and grind grain between 500 and 900 B.C. As cultures harnessed the power that wind offered, the use of windmills spread from Persia to the surrounding areas in the Middle East, where windmills were used extensively in food production. Eventually, around 1,000 A.D., wind power technology spread north to European countries such as The Netherlands, which used windmills to help drain lakes and marshes.The first electricity-generating windmill was built in Scotland in 1887 by Prof James Blyth.
Wind

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